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Environ Pollut. 2018 Dec;243(Pt B):1383-1393. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.09.099. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Long-term impact of cement plant emissions on the elemental composition of both soils and pine stands and on the formation of Scots pine seeds.

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Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:
Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
Bryansk State Technological University of Engineering, Bryansk, Russia.


We investigated the long-term impact of the largest Russian cement plant on mesopodzol sandy soils and Scots pine stands. We determined the distributions of the total and available pools of Ca, Mg, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd in the soil profile to a depth of 60 cm (illuvial horizon) as well as the accumulation patterns of these elements in the vegetative and generative organs of Scots pine trees. High Ca accumulation in the impact zone soils was a result of CaO emissions by a cement plant. Also, CaO became the main cause of soil profile alkalization due to neutralization of soil acids and formation of calcium hydroxide or carbonates. Alkalization immobilized substantial amounts of Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni in the soil, reducing their availability. The most prominent effect of long-term cement production was a prominent Mn deficiency in vegetative and generative Scots pine organs due to the exhaustion of the available Mn pool in the illuvial horizon. The miniaturization of cones, a decrease in seed yield and a reduction in seed germinability were observed in the emission impact zones. Pretreatment of Mn-deficient seeds with manganese eliminated Mn deficiency but did not increase seed germination.


Heavy metals; Metal availability; Mn deficiency; Soil alkalization

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