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Metab Brain Dis. 2019 Feb;34(1):87-92. doi: 10.1007/s11011-018-0324-1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Effect of Nelumbo nucifera fruit on scopolamine induced memory deficits and motor coordination.

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Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
Department of Pharmacology, Multan Medical & Dental College, Multan, Pakistan.
Karachi Institute of Medical Sciences, CMH Malir, Karachi, Pakistan.


From prehistoric time till today herbal medications are supposed to have neuroprotective effects both by inhibiting acetyl cholinesterase enzyme or antioxidant ability and are also affordable. Thus extensive studies are necessary to investigate the pharmacological effects of herbal plants. The goal of the present study was to ascertain the outcome of Nelumbo nucifera fruit (NNF) on scopolamine induced amnestic rats along with motor coordination in mice in order to explore its pharmacological use in disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The effect of NNF on learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze test using 35 Wister rats weighing 200-230 g evenly divided in to five groups. While motor coordination was assessed using Rot rod test, 35 male locally bred albino mice weighing 20-25 g were equally divided in to five groups. Group I was kept as control (10 ml/kg gum tragacanth). Group II, III and IV were labeled as treated groups (NNF 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg). Group V served as reference group (piracetam 200 mg/kg). All drugs were given by oral route as a single dose for 15 days in both experiments to rats and mice, however scopolamine (1 mg/kg IP) was used in Morris water maze test 40 min after the administration of drugs to rats for the induction of amnesia. In Morris water maze test, N. nucifera fruit caused highly significant and significant decrease in escape latency in the amnestic rats at 200 and 100 mg/kg as compared to control. In Rota rod test, N. nucifera fruit did not exhibit any notable changes in the riding time at any dose as compared to control. N. nucifera fruit have demonstrated ameliorating effects on memory without affecting muscle coordination. Hence NNF seems to have great potential for therapeutic application in memory disorders, such as AD which may be due to its ability to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission and exerting antioxidant effect and thus encourage more preclinical and clinical trials in this field.


Alzheimer’s disease; Morris water maze; Nelumbo nucifera; Rota rod test


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