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Gastroenterology. 2019 Jan;156(2):384-399. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.07.058. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Insights From Deep Sequencing of the HBV Genome-Unique, Tiny, and Misunderstood.

Author information

1
Nuffield Department of Medicine, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Oxford, United Kingdom.
2
Nuffield Department of Medicine, NDM Research Building, Oxford, United Kingdom.
3
Nuffield Department of Medicine, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Oxford, United Kingdom; Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.
4
Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Royal Melbourne Hospital at the Peter Doherty Institute of Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne. Melbourne, Australia.
5
Nuffield Department of Medicine, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Oxford, United Kingdom; Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address: philippa.matthews@ndm.ox.ac.uk.

Abstract

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a unique, tiny, partially double-stranded, reverse-transcribing DNA virus with proteins encoded by multiple overlapping reading frames. The substitution rate is surprisingly high for a DNA virus, but lower than that of other reverse transcribing organisms. More than 260 million people worldwide have chronic HBV infection, which causes 0.8 million deaths a year. Because of the high burden of disease, international health agencies have set the goal of eliminating HBV infection by 2030. Nonetheless, the intriguing HBV genome has not been well characterized. We summarize data on the HBV genome structure and replication cycle, explain and quantify diversity within and among infected individuals, and discuss advances that can be offered by application of next-generation sequencing technology. In-depth HBV genome analyses could increase our understanding of disease pathogenesis and allow us to better predict patient outcomes, optimize treatment, and develop new therapeutics.

KEYWORDS:

Diversity; Evolution; Genotype; Hepatitis B Virus

PMID:
30268787
PMCID:
PMC6347571
DOI:
10.1053/j.gastro.2018.07.058
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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