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Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Dec;120(Pt B):1726-1733. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.09.138. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Molecular structures, chemical properties and biological activities of polysaccharide from Smilax glabra rhizome.

Author information

1
Department of Marine Food Science and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, 120, Gangneung, Gangwon 210-702, Republic of Korea.
2
College of Maritime Studies and Management, Chiangmai University, Samut Sakhon 74000, Thailand.
3
Department of Marine Food Science and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, 120, Gangneung, Gangwon 210-702, Republic of Korea; Department of Food Science and Technology, Souphanouvong University, 13th North Route Road, Ban Donemai, Luangprabang, Lao PDR.
4
Department of Marine Biotechnology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, 120, Gangneung, Gangwon 210-702, Republic of Korea.
5
Department of Seafood Processing, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 46414-356, Noor, Iran.
6
Department of Marine Food Science and Technology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, 120, Gangneung, Gangwon 210-702, Republic of Korea; The East Coast Research Institute of Life Science, Gangneung-Wonju National University, 120, Gangneung, Gangwon 210-720, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: umyousg@gwnu.ac.kr.

Abstract

The water-soluble crude polysaccharides, extracted from the rhizome of Smilax glabra, were fractionated using an anion exchange chromatography, yielding two fractions, F1 and F2. The crude and fractions (F1 and F2) mainly consisted of carbohydrates (66.7%-91.1%), proteins (7.30%-23.9%) and minor amount of sulfates (1.60%-9.40%). Glucose was the major monosaccharide unit of the polysaccharides with different levels of sugar constituents including galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and mannose. The molecular weight (Mw) of crude and fractions ranged from 32,102-6.3 × 103 g/mol. The crude and fractions could stimulate RAW264.7 cells to release nitric oxide and cytokines via up-regulation of their mRNA expression by the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs pathways. The related pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on the surface of the cells appeared to be TLR2 and CR3. The GC-MS analysis revealed that the main backbone of the most immune-enhancing F2 was (1 → 4)-linked glucose and galactose chain with minor linkages of (1 → 6)-galactose, (1 → 3)-mannose, (1 → 2)-rhamnose and (1 → 5)-arabinose with some branches at C-3 and C-4 rhamnose, or C-6 galactose.

KEYWORDS:

Glycosidic linkages; Immunostimulation; RAW264.7 cells; Rhizome polysaccharides; Smilax glabra

PMID:
30268750
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.09.138
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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