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Placenta. 2018 Sep 15. pii: S0143-4004(18)30642-8. doi: 10.1016/j.placenta.2018.09.003. [Epub ahead of print]

Genome-wide identification of enhancer elements in the placenta.

Author information

1
Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011-1079, USA; Interdepartmental Genetics and Genomics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011-1079, USA.
2
Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011-1079, USA; Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011-1079, USA.
3
Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011-1079, USA; Interdepartmental Genetics and Genomics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011-1079, USA; Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011-1079, USA. Electronic address: geetu@iastate.edu.

Abstract

Normal placental development is essential for a healthy pregnancy, and is contingent upon tight spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression. One level of transcriptional control is via enhancer elements in the genome. Enhancers are distal cis-regulatory elements that can impact gene expression regardless of their position or orientation. The study of enhancers in the placenta is usually focused on one or two at a time, and the simultaneous identification of all enhancers has been limited. However, such a holistic approach is necessary if we are to gain a systems-level understanding of gene expression regulation in the placenta. Here, we review current methods for genome-scale enhancer identification, as well as studies that have applied those techniques in the placenta, with the aim of guiding future research.

KEYWORDS:

ATAC-seq; ChIP-seq; DNase-seq; Enhancer elements; FAIRE-seq; cis-regulation

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