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Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018 Nov 1;192:172-178. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.07.033. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

A multi-level analysis of emergency department data on drinking patterns, alcohol policy and cause of injury in 28 countries.

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Alcohol Research Group, 6001 Shellmound St. Suite 450, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA. Electronic address:
Alcohol Research Group, 6001 Shellmound St. Suite 450, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA.



While individual-level drinking pattern is an important risk factor for alcohol-related injury, societal-level pattern and alcohol policy are also important, and no research exists on the relationship of these variables with specific causes of injury.


A probability sample of 14,142 emergency department (ED) patients from 32 ED studies in 28 countries included in the International Collaborative Alcohol and Injury Study (ICAIS) is analyzed using multilevel modeling of individual-level volume and pattern of drinking, country-level detrimental drinking pattern (DDP), and alcohol policy using the International Alcohol Policy and Injury Index (IAPII) on self-reported drinking prior to the injury event, categorized as traffic, violence, fall or other cause. The IAPII includes four domains: availability, vehicular, advertising, and drinking context.


Frequent heavy drinking was a strong predictor (p < .0.001) of injuries related to violence (OR = 2.57), falls (OR = 2.86), and other causes (OR = 1.71), while episodic heavy drinking was a significant predictor of injuries related to violence and falls. DDP was a significant predictor (p < 0.05) of traffic (OR = 1.54) and violence-related injuries (OR = 1.38) but lost significance when the IAPII was included. The IAPII was a significant predictor only for traffic injury (OR = 0.97, p < 0.001), and each domain with the exception of context were also significant.


Findings here clearly point to the importance of targeted policies for specific causes of injury as well as the importance of individual and societal drinking patterns, the latter of which may be difficult to influence by preventive measures aimed to reduce alcohol-related injury.


Alcohol policy; Alcohol-related injury cause; Drinking patterns

[Available on 2019-11-01]
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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