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Contact Dermatitis. 2018 Dec;79(6):346-355. doi: 10.1111/cod.13123. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Increased expression of interleukin-9 in patients with allergic contact dermatitis caused by p-phenylenediamine.

Author information

1
Department of Dermatology, Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium.
2
Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique (IREC Pôle Pneumologie, ORL, Dermatologie), Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
3
de Duve Institute, MEXP Unit, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Allergic contact dermatitis has been described as a type IV reaction caused by antigen-specific T cells. Central roles for CD8+ cytotoxic T cells as effector cells and CD4+ T cells as regulatory cells have been suggested. T helper (Th) 2 and Th1 cytokines have been implicated; however, the nature of the allergen influences the Th response.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the types of T cells and cytokines expressed in patients allergic to p-phenylenediamine (PPD).

METHODS:

Serial skin biopsies of areas with positive patch test reactions in 29 PPD-sensitized patients were collected. T cell markers and cytokine expression were analysed by flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in both skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of sensitized patients.

RESULTS:

We observed increased expression of T cell markers and Th2/Th9-associated cytokines in both skin and stimulated PBMCs of PPD-allergic patients. Moreover, interleukin (IL)-9 was mainly produced by Th9 cells, in both skin and PBMCs. Further investigations showed that Il9r-deficient mice were more affected in a PPD contact hypersensitivity model than wild-type mice.

CONCLUSION:

We did not confirm the preclinical presence of CD8+ T cells. However, the expression of different T cell markers positively correlated with patch test reactions. IL-9 expression was strongly upregulated and directly related to patch test severity. In addition, we showed that IL-9 has an anti-inflammatory role in a mouse model of PPD contact hypersensitivity.

KEYWORDS:

IL-4; IL-9; Th2; Th9; allergic contact dermatitis; p-phenylenediamine

PMID:
30264909
DOI:
10.1111/cod.13123
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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