Send to

Choose Destination
Indian J Med Res. 2018 Jul;148(1):116-119. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_39_18.

Dohra- a mixture of potent carcinogens.

Author information

Department of Health Research, ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention & Research, Noida, India.
Society for Life Science and Human Health, Allahabad, India.
Department of Botany, Ganpat Sahay P.G. College, Payagipur, Sultanpur, India.
WHO FCTC Global Knowledge Hub on Smokeless Tobacco, ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention & Research, Noida, India.
School of Preventive Oncology, Patna, India.


Background & objectives:

Dohra is a areca nut preparation used with or without tobacco in a few of the areas of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. There is evidence that it causes potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer. This study was undertaken to provide information on dohra by searching through literature and also through a survey in three areas of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India.


The information on dohra was collected through literature search, study tour to different areas of UP, where group discussions with dohra vendors and with community members of different age group were done to obtain information.


Dohra was prepared by the users for their personal use or prepared by small-scale industry for sale. It was available mostly in betel shops or any other store/kiosks and was also available in special dohra shops. Dohra was available in both dry and wet form. Its common constituents were areca nut, catechu (Acacia catechu), edible lime, peppermint (Mentha piperita), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) and some flavoring agents. Dohra was consumed as such or with tobacco.

Interpretation & conclusions:

Different varieties of Dohra were available such as sukha dohra, sukha mulethi dohra and geela dohra. Different processing methods for producing dohra existed. As dohra increases the risk of cancer, it needs to be banned or it should be sold in packets with the details of its constituents and also statutory warning about its adverse health effects.


- edible lime - tobacco; Areca nut - catechu - Dohra

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center