Send to

Choose Destination
Dev Psychobiol. 2019 Jan;61(1):56-68. doi: 10.1002/dev.21785. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

The association between perinatal hypoxia exposure and externalizing symptoms and children's decision making in conditions of uncertainty is moderated by DRD2 genotype.

Author information

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.
Department of Bioengineering, The University of Pennsylvania, University Park, Pennsylvania.


Variants of the DRD2 Taq1A polymorphism, which have been shown to result in functional differences in dopamine D2 receptors (D2R), have been linked to various externalizing outcomes in adults. However, the neurobiological processes that contribute to these associations are not well understood. The current study investigates gene × environment effects on teacher-rated externalizing behaviors and probabilistic decision making in a sample of 333 children (age 9) enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal study. Findings indicate that externalizing behaviors increased as a function of hypoxic exposure only among individuals carrying the A1 (A1+) allele. Results also indicate that willingness to pursue reward under conditions of maximum uncertainty (50% probability) decreased as a function of hypoxic exposure only among A1- individuals. Among A1 carriers, no association between probability decision making and hypoxic exposure emerged. These findings suggest that hypoxia could influence neural development through different biological pathways depending on D2 receptor genotype, and provide insight into the development of individual differences in behavior and decision making.


antisocial; hypoxia; probabilistic decision making; uncertainty intolerance

[Available on 2020-01-01]
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center