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Food Sci Biotechnol. 2017 Apr 30;26(2):311-317. doi: 10.1007/s10068-017-0042-1. eCollection 2017.

Analysis of ethanol in soy sauce using electronic nose for halal food certification.

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1Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women's University, Seoul, 01797 Korea.
Division of Industry Services, Korean Food Research Institute, Gyenggi, 13539 Korea.
Division of Food Science and Culinary Arts, Shinhan University, Gyenggi, 16644 Korea.
4Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea Christian University, Seoul, 07661 Korea.


The purpose of this study was to analyze ethanol content in soy sauce using mass spectrometry (MS) with electronic nose (e-nose) to determine if MS e-nose can replace gas chromatographic analysis for halal certification. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), the standard method of ethanol content, was used to analyze 24 different kinds of soy sauce. Ethanol was detected from 13 soy sauce samples in the concentration range of 0.0004-1.7wt%. The MS e-nose data were analyzed by discriminant function analysis (DFA). Based on an addition method, the results were more than 96.6% accurate when the ethanol concentrations were greater than 0.5%. A high correlation between the first score of the DFA plot and the ethanol concentration was observed. Thus, mass spectrometry based on e-nose is an efficient method for determining ethanol as a primary screening tool for halal certification.


discrimination; electronic nose; ethanol; halal food; soy sauce

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