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Immunol Lett. 2018 Nov;203:95-101. doi: 10.1016/j.imlet.2018.09.014. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Low-dose multicomponent medication modulates humoral and cellular immune response in an ex-vivo study on children subjected to adenoid surgery.

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Department of Clinical Surgical Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
Department of Pediatrics, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia, Italy.
Service of Biostatistics Hematology Department, Niguarda Ca' Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy.
Department of Medicine, IRCCS-Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy. Electronic address:
Department of Pediatrics, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.


Respiratory infections, mainly in children, are a demanding challenge for physicians. Commonly, a relative immune-defect sustains their recurrence. At present, there is no standardized treatment for their prevention acting on the immune system. Citomix is a low-dose multicomponent medication largely used in this issue. The current study evaluated its ex vivo effect on adenoidal mononuclear cells recovered from children operated for adenoid hypertrophy. B cell phenotype, and IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10, IgG, IgA, IgM in culture supernatants were evaluated. Citomix was able to significantly increase the expression of B memory cells, IFN-γ, IL-6, IgA and IgM, and significantly decrease IL-10 and IgG. The current outcomes could be consistent with a strategy deputed to improve the early immune response to pathogens. In conclusion, the present ex vivo study suggests that Citomix might be a promising medication in preventing and early treating respiratory infections.


Adenoidal cells; B memory cells; Children; IFN-γ; IL-10; IL-6; IgA; IgG; IgM; Low-dose multicomponent medication; Respiratory infections; SKA (sequential kinetic activation)

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