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FASEB J. 2019 Feb;33(2):2435-2450. doi: 10.1096/fj.201800935RR. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Bile acids induce visceral hypersensitivity via mucosal mast cell-to-nociceptor signaling that involves the farnesoid X receptor/nerve growth factor/transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 axis.

Author information

1
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Disease, Shanghai, China.

Abstract

Increased colonic bile acid (BA) exposure, frequent in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), can affect gut function. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is implicated in the development of visceral hypersensitivity (VH). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that BAs cause VH via mucosal mast cell (MMC)-to-nociceptor signaling, which involves the farnesoid X receptor (FXR)/NGF/transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 axis. BAs were intracolonically administered to rats for 15 d. Visceral sensitivity to colorectal distention and colonic NGF expression were examined. BAs caused VH, an effect that involved MMC-derived NGF and was accompanied by enhanced TRPV1 expression in the dorsal root ganglia. Anti-NGF treatment and TRPV1 antagonism inhibited BA-induced VH. BAs induced NGF mRNA and protein expression and release in cultured mast cells. Colonic supernatants from patients with IBS-D with elevated colonic BA content transcriptionally induced NGF expression. In FXR-/- mice, visceral sensitivity and colonic NGF expression were unaltered after BA treatment. Pharmacological antagonism and FXR silencing suppressed BA-induced NGF expression and release in mast cells. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) 3/6/p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling was mechanistically responsible for FXR-mediated NGF expression and secretion. The findings show an MMC-dependent and FXR-mediated pronociceptive effect of BAs and identify the BA/FXR/NGF/TRPV1 axis as a key player in MMC-to-neuron communication during pain processing in IBS.-Li, W.-T., Luo, Q.-Q., Wang, B., Chen, X., Yan, X.-J., Qiu, H.-Y., Chen, S.-L. Bile acids induce visceral hypersensitivity via mucosal mast cell-to-nociceptor signaling that involves the farnesoid X receptor/nerve growth factor/transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 axis.

KEYWORDS:

IBS; NF-κB; p38 MAPK; pain processing

PMID:
30260705
DOI:
10.1096/fj.201800935RR

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