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Yale J Biol Med. 2018 Sep 21;91(3):291-300. eCollection 2018 Sep.

In vivo Detection of Alzheimer's Disease.

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Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
Wallenberg Centre for Molecular and Translational Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
Clinical Memory Research Unit, Lund University, Sweden.
Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Graduate Program in Biological Sciences: Biochemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Brain Institute of Rio Grande do Sul (BraIns), Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.


Recent revisions to the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) incorporated conceptual advances in the field. Specifically, AD is now recognized to encompass a continuum, spanning from preclinical (accruing brain pathology in the absence of symptoms) through symptomatic predementia (prodromal AD, mild cognitive impairment) and dementia phases. The role of biological markers (biomarkers) of both the underlying molecular pathologies and related neurodegenerative changes has also been acknowledged. In this abridged review, we provide an overview of fluid (cerebrospinal fluid and blood) and molecular imaging-based biomarkers used within the field and discuss the potential role of computer driven artificial intelligence approaches for both the early and accurate identification of AD and as a tool for population enrichment in clinical trials testing candidate disease modifying therapies.


Alzheimer’s disease; Diagnosis; Fluid biomarkers; Medical imaging

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