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J Clin Microbiol. 2018 Nov 27;56(12). pii: e01046-18. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01046-18. Print 2018 Dec.

Effect of Vaccination on Pneumococci Isolated from the Nasopharynx of Healthy Children and the Middle Ear of Children with Otitis Media in Iceland.

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University of Iceland, Faculty of Medicine, Reykjavík, Iceland.
Landspitali University Hospital, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Reykjavík, Iceland.
BioMedical Centre of the University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Parasites and Microbes, Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom.
University of Iceland, Department of Mathematics, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Children's Hospital Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
University of Iceland, Faculty of Medicine, Reykjavík, Iceland


Vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) disrupts the pneumococcal population. Our aim was to determine the impact of the 10-valent PCV on the serotypes, genetic lineages, and antimicrobial susceptibility of pneumococci isolated from children in Iceland. Pneumococci were collected between 2009 and 2017 from the nasopharynges of healthy children attending 15 day care centers and from the middle ears (MEs) of children with acute otitis media from the greater Reykjavik capital area. Isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on alternate isolates from 2009 to 2014, and serotypes and multilocus sequence types (STs) were extracted from the WGS data. Two study periods were defined: 2009 to 2011 (PreVac) and 2012 to 2017 (PostVac). The overall nasopharyngeal carriage rate was similar between the two periods (67.3% PreVac and 61.5% PostVac, P = 0.090). Vaccine-type (VT) pneumococci decreased and nonvaccine-type (NVT) pneumococci (serotypes 6C, 15A, 15B/C, 21, 22F, 23A, 23B, 35F, and 35B) significantly increased in different age strata post-PCV introduction. The total number of pneumococci recovered from ME samples significantly decreased as did the proportion that were VTs, although NVT pneumococci (6C, 15B/C, 23A, and 23B) increased significantly. Most serotype 6C pneumococci were multidrug resistant (MDR). Serotype 19F was the predominant serotype associated with MEs, and it significantly decreased post-PCV introduction: these isolates were predominantly MDR and of the Taiwan19F-14 PMEN lineage. Overall, the nasopharyngeal carriage rate remained constant and the number of ME-associated pneumococci decreased significantly post-PCV introduction; however, there was a concomitant and statistically significant shift from VTs to NVTs in both collections of pneumococci.


Iceland; Streptococcus pneumoniae; carriage; epidemiology; molecular epidemiology; otitis media; pneumococcus; vaccination; vaccine

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