Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Sep 25;19(10). pii: E2917. doi: 10.3390/ijms19102917.

Contribution of Resident Stem Cells to Liver and Biliary Tree Regeneration in Human Diseases.

Author information

1
Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedics Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Borelli 50, 00161 Rome, Italy. diletta.overi@uniroma1.it.
2
Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, Division of Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Piazza Lauro de Bosis 6, 00135 Rome, Italy. guido.carpino@uniroma1.it.
3
Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Corso della Repubblica 79, 04100 Latina, Italy. v.cardinale80@gmail.com.
4
Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedics Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Borelli 50, 00161 Rome, Italy. antonio.franchitto@uniroma1.it.
5
Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 151, 00161 Rome, Italy. samira.safarikia@uniroma1.it.
6
Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedics Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Borelli 50, 00161 Rome, Italy. paolo.onori@uniroma1.it.
7
Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 151, 00161 Rome, Italy. domenico.alvaro@uniroma1.it.
8
Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedics Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Borelli 50, 00161 Rome, Italy. eugenio.gaudio@uniroma1.it.

Abstract

Two distinct stem/progenitor cell populations of biliary origin have been identified in the adult liver and biliary tree. Hepatic Stem/progenitor Cells (HpSCs) are bipotent progenitor cells located within the canals of Hering and can be differentiated into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes; Biliary Tree Stem/progenitor Cells (BTSCs) are multipotent stem cells located within the peribiliary glands of large intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts and able to differentiate into hepatic and pancreatic lineages. HpSCs and BTSCs are endowed in a specialized niche constituted by supporting cells and extracellular matrix compounds. The actual contribution of these stem cell niches to liver and biliary tree homeostatic regeneration is marginal; this is due to the high replicative capabilities and plasticity of mature parenchymal cells (i.e., hepatocytes and cholangiocytes). However, the study of human liver and biliary diseases disclosed how these stem cell niches are involved in the regenerative response after extensive and/or chronic injuries, with the activation of specific signaling pathways. The present review summarizes the contribution of stem/progenitor cell niches in human liver diseases, underlining mechanisms of activation and clinical implications, including fibrogenesis and disease progression.

KEYWORDS:

biliary tree stem/progenitor cells; cholangiopathies; ductular reaction; hepatic stem/progenitor cells; liver fibrosis; liver regeneration; peribiliary glands

PMID:
30257529
PMCID:
PMC6213374
DOI:
10.3390/ijms19102917
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center