Send to

Choose Destination
ACS Nano. 2018 Oct 23;12(10):10518-10528. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.8b06494. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

MXene Sorbents for Removal of Urea from Dialysate: A Step toward the Wearable Artificial Kidney.

Author information

A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, and Materials Science and Engineering Department , Drexel University , 3141 Chestnut Street , Philadelphia , Pennsylvania 19104 , United States.
Pharmaceutical College , Guangxi Medical University , Nanning , Guangxi 530021 , People's Republic of China.
School of Optical and Electronic Information , Huazhong University of Science and Technology , Wuhan , Hubei 430074 , People's Republic of China.
Cedars Sinai Medical Center, The David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA , 50 North la Cienega Boulevard, Suite 310 , Beverly Hills , California 90211 , United States.
Biomaterials and Medical Devices Research Group, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences , University of Brighton , Huxley Building, Lewes Road , Brighton , East Sussex BN2 4GJ , U.K.
ANAMAD Ltd, Sussex Innovation Centre , Science Park Square , Brighton BN1 9SB , U.K.
Symbiosis Centre for Stem Cell Research , Symbiosis International University , Lavale, Pune 412115 , India.


The wearable artificial kidney can deliver continuous ambulatory dialysis for more than 3 million patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the efficient removal of urea is a key challenge in miniaturizing the device and making it light and small enough for practical use. Here, we show that two-dimensional titanium carbide (MXene) with the composition of Ti3C2T x, where T x represents surface termination groups such as -OH, -O-, and -F, can adsorb urea, reaching 99% removal efficiency from aqueous solution and 94% from dialysate at the initial urea concentration of 30 mg/dL, with the maximum urea adsorption capacity of 10.4 mg/g at room temperature. When tested at 37 °C, we achieved a 2-fold increase in urea removal efficiency from dialysate, with the maximum urea adsorption capacity of 21.7 mg/g. Ti3C2T x showed good hemocompatibility; it did not induce cell apoptosis or reduce the metabolizing cell fraction, indicating no impact on cell viability at concentrations of up to 200 μg/mL. The biocompatibility of Ti3C2T x and its selectivity for urea adsorption from dialysate open a new opportunity in designing a miniaturized dialysate regeneration system for a wearable artificial kidney.


2D materials; MXenes; adsorption; dialysate; urea; wearable artificial kidney


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for American Chemical Society
Loading ...
Support Center