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J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2018 Sep 26. doi: 10.1111/jeu.12691. [Epub ahead of print]

Revisions to the Classification, Nomenclature, and Diversity of Eukaryotes.

Author information

1
Department of Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK Canada.
2
Dept of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD.
3
Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Barrack Road, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset, DT4 8UB.
4
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, 02881, USA.
5
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, 37005, České Budějovice, Czechia.
6
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, 37005, České Budějovice, Czechia.
7
National Institute for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
8
Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology, Saint Petersburg State University, 199034, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
9
Department of Biosciences, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, A-5020, Salzburg, Austria.
10
CNRS, UMR 7144 (AD2M), Groupe Evolution des Protistes et Ecosystèmes Pélagiques, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, Roscoff, 29680, France.
11
Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, MS, USA.
12
Institute for Genomics, Biocomputing& Biotechnology, Mississippi State University, MS, USA.
13
Department of Organismal Biology, Program in Systematic Biology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, 75236, Sweden.
14
Pharmacognosy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Uppsala University, BMC Box 574, SE-75123, Uppsala, Sweden.
15
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Vinicna 7, 128 44, Prague, Czechia.
16
Core Facility Centre for Culture Collection of Microorganisms, Saint Petersburg State University, 198504, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
17
Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37-49 08003, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
18
Department of Ecology, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger Street, D-67663, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
19
Department of Eukaryotic Microbiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstrasse 5, D-45141, Essen, Germany.
20
Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, 0316, Oslo, Norway.
21
Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
22
Sorbonne Université, Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, CNRS, UMR 7144 (AD2M), Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, CS90074, 29688, Roscoff, France.
23
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, BIOCEV, Průmyslová 595, 252 42, Vestec, Czechia.
24
Department of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, 10024, USA.
25
Senckenberg am Meer, DZMB - German Centre for Marine Biodiversity Research, D-26382, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.
26
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.
27
Laboratory of Parasitic Worms and Protistology, Zoological Institute RAS, 199034, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
28
Department of Zoology, Institute of Biosciences, University of Sao Paulo, Matao Travessa 14 Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, 05508-090 SP, Brazil.
29
Laboratory of Soil Biodiversity, University of Neuchâtel, Rue Emile-Argand 11, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
30
Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Plaza de Murillo 2, 28014, Madrid, Spain.
31
Institut de Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Sorbonne Universités, 57 rue Cuvier, CP, 39 75005, Paris, France.
32
Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Summerlee Science Complex, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada.
33
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 4200-6270University Blvd, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 Canada.
34
Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, EH3 5LR, United Kingdom and Institute for Agrifood Research and Technology, C/ Poble Nou km 5.5, Sant Carles de La Ràpita, E-43540, Spain.
35
Jardin Botanique de Neuchâtel, Chemin du Perthuis-du-Sault 58, CH-2000, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
36
Department of Natural Sciences, National Museums Northern Ireland, 153 Bangor Road, Holywood, BT18 OEU, Northern Ireland, UK.
37
Department of Oceanography and Kyungpook Institute of Oceanography, School of Earth System Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
38
Department of Genetics and Evolution, University of Geneva 1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland.
39
Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, 35487, USA.
40
Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC-Univeritat Pompeu Fabra), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
41
School of Applied Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, EH11 4BN, United Kingdom.
42
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA.
43
Science Research Centre, Hosei University, 2-17-1 Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-8160, Japan.
44
Laboratoire Evolution et Systématique, Université Paris-XI, 91405, Orsay, France.
45
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, 74074, USA.
46
Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology Program, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
47
Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Yantai, 264003, China.
48
Institute of Evolution& Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, China.

Abstract

This revision of the classification of eukaryotes follows that of Adl et al., 2012 [J. Euk. Microbiol. 59(5)] and retains an emphasis on protists. Changes since have improved the resolution of many nodes in phylogenetic analyses. For some clades even families are being clearly resolved. As we had predicted, environmental sampling in the intervening years has massively increased the genetic information at hand. Consequently, we have discovered novel clades, exciting new genera, and uncovered a massive species level diversity beyond the morphological species descriptions. Several clades known from environmental samples only have found their home. Sampling soils, deeper marine waters, and the deep sea will continue to fill us with surprises. The main changes in this revision are the confirmation that eukaryotes form at least two domains, the loss of monophyly in the Exavata, robust support for the Haptista and Cryptista. We provide suggested primer sets for DNA sequences from environmental samples that are effective for each clade. We have provided a guide to trophic functional guilds in an appendix, to facilitate the interpretation of environmental samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID:
30257078
DOI:
10.1111/jeu.12691

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