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Transplant Direct. 2018 Jul 20;4(8):e377. doi: 10.1097/TXD.0000000000000815. eCollection 2018 Aug.

Outcomes of Adult Intestinal Transplant Recipients Requiring Dialysis and Renal Transplantation.

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Department of Medicine, Renal-Electrolyte Division, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
Department of Surgery, Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
Departments of Medicine, Biostatistics, and Clinical and Translational Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
Division of Intra-Abdominal Transplant & Hepatobiliary Surgery, Department of Surgery, New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY.



Data on dialysis and renal transplantation (RT) after intestinal transplantation (IT) are sparse. Whether changes in immunosuppression and surgical techniques have modified these outcomes is unknown.


Two hundred eighty-eight adult intestinal transplants performed between 1990 and 2014 at the University of Pittsburgh were analyzed for incidence, risk factors and outcomes after dialysis and RT. Cohort was divided into 3 eras based on immunosuppression and surgical technique (1990-1994, 1995-2001, and 2001-2014). Receiving RT, or dialysis for 90 days or longer was considered as end-stage renal disease (ESRD).


During a median follow-up of 5.7 years, 71 (24.7%) patients required dialysis, 38 (13.2%) required long-term dialysis and 17 (6%) received RT after IT. One-, 3-, and 5-year ESRD risk was 2%, 7%, and 14%, respectively. No significant era-based differences were noted. Higher baseline creatinine (hazard ratio [HR], 3.40 per unit increase, P < 0.01) and use of liver containing grafts (HR, 2.01; P = 0.04) had an increased ESRD risk. Median patient survival after dialysis initiation was 6 months, with a 3-year survival of 21%. Any dialysis (HR, 12.74; 95% CI 8.46-19.20; P < 0.01) and ESRD (HR, 9.53; 95% CI, 5.87-15.49; P < 0.01) had higher mortality after adjusting for covariates. For renal after IT, 1- and 3-year kidney and patient survivals were 70% and 49%, respectively. All graft losses were from death with a functioning graft, primarily related to infectious complications (55%).


In intestinal transplant recipients, renal failure requiring dialysis or RT is high and is associated with increased mortality. Additionally, the outcomes for kidney after IT are suboptimal due to death with a functioning graft.

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