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World J Psychiatry. 2018 Sep 20;8(3):88-96. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v8.i3.88. eCollection 2018 Sep 20.

Drinking plain water is associated with decreased risk of depression and anxiety in adults: Results from a large cross-sectional study.

Author information

1
Food Security Research Center and Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran.
2
Psychosomatic Research Center, Integrative Functional Gastrointestinal Research Center and Biostatistics and Epidemiology Department, School of Health Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezarjarib, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran. awat_feiz@hlth.mui.ac.ir.
3
Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14176-53761, Iran.
4
Shahid Motahari Hospital, Fooladshahr, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran.
5
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AL 54321, Canada.
6
Cardiac Rehabilitation Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran.
7
Integrative Functional Gastrointestinal Research Center and Gastroenterology Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran.

Abstract

AIM:

To investigate the relation between plain water drinking and risk of depression and anxiety among a large sample of Iranian adults.

METHODS:

A total of 3327 Iranian general adults were included in this cross-sectional study. Validated Iranian version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression. Water consumption was assessed by asking about the number of glasses of water that consumed daily. Water consumption was categorized into < 2, 2-5, and ≥ 5 glasses of water/d.

RESULTS:

In the crude model, the lowest level of water drinking (< 2 glasses/d) compared with reference group (≥ 5 glasses/d) doubled the risk of depression and anxiety (P < 0.0001). After adjusting potential confounders, this inverse link remained significant for depression (OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.32, 2.42; P < 0.0001), but not for anxiety (OR: 1.49; 95%CI: 0.98, 2.25; P = 0.109). In stratified analyses by sex, after controlling for potential confounders, water drinking < 2 glasses/d was associated with 73% and 54% increment in the risk of depression in men and women, respectively (P < 0.05), whilst no significant association was observed for anxiety either in men or in women.

CONCLUSION:

We found inverse associations between plain water consumption and depression. Also, these findings showed a tended risky association, but not statistically significant, between lower levels of water consumption and anxiety. These findings warrant evaluation in prospective and clinical trials studies to establish the plausible role of water in mental health status.

KEYWORDS:

Anxiety; Depression; Iranian; Psychological disorders; Water

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict-of-interest statement: None of the authors had any personal or financial conflicts of interest.

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