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Am J Public Health. 2018 Nov;108(11):1469-1472. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304586. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

100 Years of Medical Countermeasures and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness.

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Barbara J. Jester is a Battelle contractor working for the Influenza Division at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA. Timothy M. Uyeki is chief medical officer for the Influenza Division at CDC. Anita Patel is the medical care and countermeasures team lead for the Influenza Coordination Unit at CDC. Lisa Koonin is deputy director of the Influenza Coordination Unit at CDC. Daniel B. Jernigan is director of the Influenza Division at CDC.


The 1918 influenza pandemic spread rapidly around the globe, leading to high mortality and social disruption. The countermeasures available to mitigate the pandemic were limited and relied on nonpharmaceutical interventions. Over the past 100 years, improvements in medical care, influenza vaccines, antiviral medications, community mitigation efforts, diagnosis, and communications have improved pandemic response. A number of gaps remain, including vaccines that are more rapidly manufactured, antiviral drugs that are more effective and available, and better respiratory protective devices.

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