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Toxins (Basel). 2018 Sep 21;10(10). pii: E382. doi: 10.3390/toxins10100382.

Development and Application of a QuEChERS-Based Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method to Quantitate Multi-Component Alternaria Toxins in Jujube.

Wang C1,2,3, Fan Y4,5, He W6,7, Hu D8, Wu A9, Wu W10.

Author information

1
Beijing Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Organic Farming, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. wangcheng312@xaas.ac.cn.
2
Management of Scientific Research, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi 830091, China. wangcheng312@xaas.ac.cn.
3
Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Quality and Safety of Xinjiang, Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-Products (Urumqi), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Urumqi 830091, China. wangcheng312@xaas.ac.cn.
4
Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Quality and Safety of Xinjiang, Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-Products (Urumqi), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Urumqi 830091, China. fyyxaas@xaas.ac.cn.
5
Institute of Quality Standards & Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi 830091, China. fyyxaas@xaas.ac.cn.
6
Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Quality and Safety of Xinjiang, Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-Products (Urumqi), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Urumqi 830091, China. hewei198112@xaas.ac.cn.
7
Institute of Quality Standards & Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi 830091, China. hewei198112@xaas.ac.cn.
8
CAS Key Laboratory of Nutrition, Metabolism and Food Safety, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. dqhu@sibs.ac.cn.
9
CAS Key Laboratory of Nutrition, Metabolism and Food Safety, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. abwu@sibs.ac.cn.
10
Beijing Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Organic Farming, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. wuwenl@cau.edu.cn.

Abstract

A simple, rapid and efficient methodology was developed and validated for the analysis of four Alternaria toxins in jujube: Tenuazonic acid, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and tentoxin. Under the optimized extraction procedure, chromatographic conditions, and instrumental parameters, the four toxins were effectively extracted via a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method, and quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Matrix-matched calibrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 μg mL-1 were conducted for the quantification due to the matrix effect. A blank jujube sample was spiked at 40, 80 and 160 μg kg-1, obtaining recoveries in the range of 83.5⁻109.6%. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range of 0.14⁻0.26 and 0.47⁻0.87 μg kg-1, respectively. Finally, the developed method was applied for the quantification of the four toxins in 14 jujube samples, including black spot-infected and uninfected samples. Results showed that the predominant toxin detected in all the samples was tenuazonic acid, the content of which was associated with the infection level; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and tentoxin were detected in all the infected samples and some of the uninfected samples with rather low contents.

KEYWORDS:

Alternaria toxins; QuEChERS; UPLC-MS/MS; jujube

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