Send to

Choose Destination
Nucleic Acids Res. 2019 Jan 8;47(D1):D948-D954. doi: 10.1093/nar/gky868.

The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database: update 2019.

Author information

Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.
Department of Bioinformatics, The Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salisbury Cove, ME 04672, USA.
Center for Human Health and the Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.


The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; is a premier public resource for literature-based, manually curated associations between chemicals, gene products, phenotypes, diseases, and environmental exposures. In this biennial update, we present our new chemical-phenotype module that codes chemical-induced effects on phenotypes, curated using controlled vocabularies for chemicals, phenotypes, taxa, and anatomical descriptors; this module provides unique opportunities to explore cellular and system-level phenotypes of the pre-disease state and allows users to construct predictive adverse outcome pathways (linking chemical-gene molecular initiating events with phenotypic key events, diseases, and population-level health outcomes). We also report a 46% increase in CTD manually curated content, which when integrated with other datasets yields more than 38 million toxicogenomic relationships. We describe new querying and display features for our enhanced chemical-exposure science module, providing greater scope of content and utility. As well, we discuss an updated MEDIC disease vocabulary with over 1700 new terms and accession identifiers. To accommodate these increases in data content and functionality, CTD has upgraded its computational infrastructure. These updates continue to improve CTD and help inform new testable hypotheses about the etiology and mechanisms underlying environmentally influenced diseases.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center