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J Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 24. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy568. [Epub ahead of print]

Influence of non-polio enteroviruses and the bacterial gut microbiota on oral poliovirus vaccine response: a study from south India.

Author information

1
Division of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
2
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London.
3
Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
4
Enteric Virus Unit, Virus Reference Department, Microbiology Services, Public Health England, London, UK.
5
Department of Community Health, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
6
Department of Paediatrics, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK.
7
Centre for Global Vaccine Research, Institute of Infection and Global Health, and NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Gastrointestinal Infection, University of Liverpool, Liverpool UK.

Abstract

Background:

Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is less immunogenic in LMIC countries. We tested whether bacterial and viral components of the intestinal microbiota are associated with this phenomenon.

Methods:

We assessed prevalence of enteropathogens using TaqMan array cards 14 days before and at vaccination in 704 Indian infants (6-11 months) receiving monovalent type3 OPV (CTRI/2014/05/004588). Non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) serotypes were identified by VP1 sequencing. In 120 infants, pre-vaccination bacterial microbiota was characterised by 16S rRNA sequencing.

Results:

We detected 56 NPEV serotypes on the day of vaccination. Concurrent NPEVs were associated with a reduction in OPV seroconversion, consistent across species (odds ratios and 95% CIs of 0·57[0·36-0·90], 0·61[0·43-0·86], and 0·69[0·41-1·16] for species A, B, and C, respectively). Recently acquired enterovirus infections,detected at vaccination, but not 14 days earlier had greater interfering effect on mOPV3 sero-response compared to persistent infections,with enterovirus detected at both time points (44/127[35%] vs 63/129[49%] seroconversion,p=0.021). Abundance of specific bacterial taxa did not differ significantly according to OPV response, although microbiota diversity was higher in non-responders at the time of vaccination.

Conclusion:

Enteric viruses have greater impact on OPV response than the bacterial microbiota with recent enterovirus infections having greater inhibitory effect than persistent infections.

PMID:
30247561
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jiy568

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