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J Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 8;219(8):1178-1186. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy568.

Influence of Nonpolio Enteroviruses and the Bacterial Gut Microbiota on Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Response: A Study from South India.

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Division of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
Enteric Virus Unit, Virus Reference Department, Microbiology Services, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.
Department of Community Health, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Paediatrics, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
Centre for Global Vaccine Research, Institute of Infection and Global Health, and National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Gastrointestinal Infection, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.



Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is less immunogenic in low- or middle-income than in high-income countries. We tested whether bacterial and viral components of the intestinal microbiota are associated with this phenomenon.


We assessed the prevalence of enteropathogens using TaqMan array cards 14 days before and at vaccination in 704 Indian infants (aged 6-11 months) receiving monovalent type 3 OPV (CTRI/2014/05/004588). Nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) serotypes were identified by means of VP1 sequencing. In 120 infants, the prevaccination bacterial microbiota was characterized using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing.


We detected 56 NPEV serotypes on the day of vaccination. Concurrent NPEVs were associated with a reduction in OPV seroconversion, consistent across species (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.57 [.36-.90], 0.61 [.43-.86], and 0.69 [.41-1.16] for species A, B, and C, respectively). Recently acquired enterovirus infections, detected at vaccination but not 14 days earlier, had a greater interfering effect on monovalent type 3 OPV seroresponse than did persistent infections, with enterovirus detected at both time points (seroconversion in 44 of 127 infants [35%] vs 63 of 129 [49%]; P = .02). The abundance of specific bacterial taxa did not differ significantly according to OPV response, although the microbiota was more diverse in nonresponders at the time of vaccination.


Enteric viruses have a greater impact on OPV response than the bacterial microbiota, with recent enterovirus infections having a greater inhibitory effect than persistent infections.


16S rRNA; Nonpolio enteroviruses; OPV; bacterial microbiota; next generation sequencing

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