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Pediatr Emerg Care. 2018 Sep 21. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000001623. [Epub ahead of print]

Multidisciplinary, In Situ Simulation Improves Experienced Caregiver Confidence With High-Risk Pediatric Emergencies.

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From the Gossman Advanced Healthcare Simulation.
Swedish Center for Research and Innovation, and.
Department of Pediatric Critical Care, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA.



Emergency department (ED) caregivers have reported feeling uncomfortable performing emergency pediatric procedures, likely because of either a lack of training or infrequent exposure to these events. To address these gaps, ongoing education for experienced ED caregivers must aim to improve caregiver confidence with high-risk, low-volume pediatric emergency care. This study used multidisciplinary, in situ simulations to facilitate improved caregiver confidence when treating pediatric emergencies in an ED setting.


Two-hour pediatric code blue simulations were held in 7 EDs throughout the Seattle, Washington, metropolitan area. Questionnaire data were collected from 353 simulation participants (60% nurses, 19.5% ED technicians, 14% ED physicians; median team size = 5) via pre simulation and post simulation surveys assessing confidence and understanding regarding interventions/treatments, standard protocols, culture of safety behavior, and team members' roles/responsibilities. Paired t tests were used to analyze changes in self-reported confidence.


Confidence improved across all questions (37%-57% of participants reported good/complete confidence pre simulation, improving 94%-98% post simulation; P < 0.00001 for all). Participants cited learning equipment location/use (37%), hands-on practice (32%), and discussion (22%) as the most helpful aspects of the simulations. Identified changes to practice made post simulation included more effective communication (18%) and utilization of a pediatric emergency drug sheet (13%).


Multidisciplinary, in situ simulation improves experienced ED caregivers' confidence with pediatric emergencies in an ED setting. These findings suggest that investment in simulation-based education may improve clinical care and quality and safety improvement plans for the treatment of pediatric emergencies in general EDs.

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