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Int J Cancer. 2019 Apr 1;144(7):1522-1529. doi: 10.1002/ijc.31886. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Use of vitamin K antagonists and risk of prostate cancer: Meta-analysis and nationwide case-control study.

Author information

1
Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
2
Department of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
3
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

Use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) has been suggested to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. We conducted a nested case-control study using Danish demographic and health data registries and summarized existing evidence in a meta-analysis. The case-control study included all Danish men aged 40-85 years with incident histologically verified prostate adenocarcinoma between 2005 and 2015 (cases). For each case, we selected 10 age-matched controls. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for prostate cancer associated with long-term VKA use adjusted for concomitant drug use, medical history and socioeconomic status. Among 38,832 prostate cancer cases, 1,089 (2.8%) had used VKAs for 3 or more years compared to 10,803 (2.8%) controls yielding a crude OR of 1.01 (95% CI, 0.95-1.08). Multivariable adjustment for covariates had limited influence on the association (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.10). We observed no dose-response relationship (e.g. OR for 5-10 years of use, 1.06 95% CI, 0.97-1.16). We included 8 studies in the meta-analysis reporting effect estimates from 0.51 (95% CI, 0.23-1.13) to 1.10 (95% CI, 0.94-1.40). Using random effect methods, a pooled effect estimate of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.70-1.05) was obtained; however, there was considerable across-study heterogeneity (I2 : 93.9%). In conclusion, we did not observe a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with VKA use in this nationwide study and, taken together with previous study findings, a major protective effect of VKAs against prostate cancer seems unlikely.

KEYWORDS:

anticoagulant drugs; case-control studies; prostate cancer; risk factors; warfarin

PMID:
30246248
DOI:
10.1002/ijc.31886

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