Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Prev Med. 2018 Oct;55(4):555-564. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2018.04.046.

Lifestyle Indices and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Meta-analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Group of Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Bonn, Germany.
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Group of Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Bonn, Germany. Electronic address: noethlings@uni-bonn.de.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Several studies investigated lifestyle indices to account for interrelations between lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular disease risk. So far, no systematic review has been conducted. Thus, the aim is to summarize the evidence of associations between lifestyle indices and cardiovascular disease risk in observational prospective studies.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION:

A systematic literature search was conducted in two databases in February 2018. Multivariable-adjusted risk estimates were combined using random effects models comparing the highest with the lowest healthy lifestyle score. Additionally, meta-analyses for cardiovascular disease types, such as stroke and heart failure, were conducted. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 index.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS:

The search identified 27 studies, of which 22 were included in the meta-analyses. Most lifestyle indices included physical activity, smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, and body weight. A healthy lifestyle was associated with a reduced risk of 66% for cardiovascular disease (95% CI=0.28, 0.41, I2=79.1%), 60% for stroke, and 69% for heart failure. A dose-response effect for adherence to an increasing number of healthy behaviors and cardiovascular disease risk was observed. Statistical heterogeneity was found, suggesting that the definition of the lifestyle indices and components varied substantially between the studies.

CONCLUSIONS:

Adherence to several healthy lifestyle behaviors simultaneously was associated with a 66% reduced cardiovascular disease risk compared with adopting none or only one behavior. Despite heterogeneity of indices, consistent inverse associations across studies underscore the relevance of adopting healthy behaviors at all. More research on other lifestyle behaviors, such as sleep duration or sedentary behavior in combination, is warranted.

PMID:
30241617
DOI:
10.1016/j.amepre.2018.04.046
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center