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Int Wound J. 2019 Feb;16(1):134-138. doi: 10.1111/iwj.13003. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Beyond 2D: 3D bioprinting for skin regeneration.

Wang R1,2, Wang Y1,2, Yao B2,3, Hu T2,3, Li Z4, Huang S2,4, Fu X2,4.

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Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.
Key Laboratory of Tissue Repair and Regeneration of PLA, and Beijing Key Research Laboratory of Skin Injury, Repair and Regeneration, First Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China.
School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.
Wound Healing and Cell Biology Laboratory, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, General Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China.


Essential cellular functions that are present in tissues are missed by two-dimensional (2D) cell monolayer culture. It certainly limits their potential to predict the cellular responses of real organisms. Engineering approaches offer solutions to overcome current limitations. For example, establishing a three-dimensional (3D)-based matrix is motivated by the need to mimic the functions of living tissues, which will have a strong impact on regenerative medicine. However, as a novel approach, it requires the development of new standard protocols to increase the efficiency of clinical translation. In this review, we summarised the various aspects of requirements related to well-suited 3D bioprinting techniques for skin regeneration and discussed how to overcome current bottlenecks and propel these therapies into the clinic.


3D bioprinting; extracellular matrices; skin regeneration


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