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Sci Rep. 2018 Sep 20;8(1):14144. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32603-y.

Impact of Porphyromonas gingivalis Peptidylarginine Deiminase on Bacterial Biofilm Formation, Epithelial Cell Invasion, and Epithelial Cell Transcriptional Landscape.

Author information

1
Broegelmann Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, N-5021, Bergen, Norway.
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 30-387, Kraków, Poland.
3
Małopolska Center of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 30-387, Kraków, Poland.
4
University of Louisville School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA.
5
2C SysBioMed, 6646, Contra, Switzerland. info@nicolasdelaleu.ch.
6
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 30-387, Kraków, Poland. jan.potempa@icloud.com.
7
University of Louisville School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA. jan.potempa@icloud.com.
8
Broegelmann Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, N-5021, Bergen, Norway. Piotr.Mydel@uib.no.
9
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 30-387, Kraków, Poland. Piotr.Mydel@uib.no.

Abstract

Peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD) is a virulence factor unique to pathogenic Porphyromonas species, especially P. gingivalis. Mechanistically, PPAD activity, in conjunction with Arg-specific gingipains, generates protein fragments with citrullinated C-termini. Such polypeptides are potential de novo epitopes that are key drivers of rheumatoid arthritis. This process could underlie the observed clinical association between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. However, the role of PPAD in host colonization by P. gingivalis and, subsequently, in triggering periodontitis is not known. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to delineate the role of PPAD in bacterial biofilm formation, and to define whether adherence to, invasion of, and host responses to bacteria of gingival keratinocytes depend on PPAD activity. We studied these aspects using PPAD-competent and PPAD-incompetent strains of P. gingivalis, and demonstrated that neither biofilm formation nor its composition was affected by PPAD activity. Similarly, flow cytometry revealed that PPAD did not impact the ability of P. gingivalis to adhere to and, subsequently, invade keratinocytes. Network analyses of gene expression patterns, however, revealed a group of host genes that were sensitive to PPAD activity (CXCL8, IL36G, CCL20, and IL1B). These genes can be categorized as potent immune modulators belonging to the interleukin 1 system, or chemoattractants of lymphocytes and neutrophils. Thus, we conclude that PPAD, although it is a potent modulator of the immune response, does not affect bacterial biofilm formation or the ability of P. gingivalis to adhere to and invade gingival epithelial cells.

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