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Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2018 Sep 20. doi: 10.5603/FM.a2018.0088. [Epub ahead of print]

Greater palatine foramen: assesment with palatal ındex, shape, number and gender.

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Istanbul Medipol University, School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Istanbul, Turkey.


Accurate knowledge of location and relation with different parameters of the greater palatine foramen (GPF) is a crucial necessity in performing a variety of anaesthesiological, dental and surgical procedures. The main aim of this study was to identify the GPF's locations, numbers and shapes via associating with gender and palatal indices and compare with literature results. This study was held on the cranium collections of the many anatomy departments in Turkey. Various metric assestments were observed on sexed, dry, total 97 craniums. Thirty eight male cranium observed and mean values of palatal indices was 86.28±10.75 and for 48 female cranium mean value for palatal indices was 81.06±10.56. Location of GPF observed bilaterally and mostly found near the third upper molar in either of both males and females. It was 62.7% (right), 60.9% (left) for male craniums and 49.0% (right) and 47.1% (left) for female craniums observed near the lateral border of upper 3rd molar. GPF found oval shape for male craniums 62.8% (right) and 61.0% (left) and for female craniums 66.0% (right) and 66.0% (left). These results were compared with to already existing anatomical data in other races and populations. This results would have great clinical influence in localizing the palatine foramina toward better palatal area surgical approaches to and anaesthetise this area.


greater palatine foramen; hard palate; lesser palatine foramen; palatal anesthesia; palatal index

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