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Parasite Immunol. 2019 Jun;41(6):e12590. doi: 10.1111/pim.12590. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Soil-transmitted helminth parasites and allergy: Observations from Ecuador.

Author information

1
Fundación Ecuatoriana Para Investigación en Salud, Quito, Ecuador.
2
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
3
Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, de la Salud y la Vida, Universidad Internacional del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
4
Institute of Infection and Immunity, St George's University of London, London, UK.

Abstract

There is considerable interest as to potential protective effects of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) against allergy and allergic diseases. Here, we discuss findings of studies done of the effects of STH parasites on atopy and allergic diseases in Ecuador. While cross-sectional studies have consistently shown a reduced prevalence of allergen skin prick test (SPT) reactivity among infected schoolchildren, the removal of these infections by repeated deworming did not affect SPT prevalence over the short-term (ie, 12 months) but may have increased SPT prevalence over the long-term (ie, 15-17 years). In the case of allergic symptoms, cross-sectional studies have generally not shown associations with STH and intervention studies showed no impact on prevalence. However, a birth cohort suggested that early STH infections might reduce wheeze by 5 years. Allergic sensitization to Ascaris, however, explained a significant proportion of wheezing among rural schoolchildren. Studies of the effects of STH on immune and inflammatory responses indicated a potential role of STH in contributing to more robust regulation. The effects of STH on allergy are likely to be determined by history of exposure over the life-course and by interactions with a wide variety of other infectious and non-infectious factors.

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