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Heart. 2018 Nov;104(22):1823-1831. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2017-312658. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Cardiovascular imaging in Turner syndrome: state-of-the-art practice across the lifespan.

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Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital For Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
Division of Cardiology, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Department of Cardiology and Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
Department of Pediatrics, Doernbecher Children's Hospital, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.
Cardiology Department, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Department of Adult Congenital Cardiology, Bart's Heart Centre, Bart's Health NHS Trust, London, UK.
Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, and Medical Research Laboratories, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
Pediatric Cardiology, Nicklaus Children's Hospital, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine at Florida International University, Miami, Florida, USA.
Department of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.


Cardiovascular imaging is essential to providing excellent clinical care for girls and women with Turner syndrome (TS). Congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases are leading causes of the lifelong increased risk of premature death in TS. Non-invasive cardiovascular imaging is crucial for timely diagnosis and treatment planning, and a systematic and targeted imaging approach should combine echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance and, in select cases, cardiac CT. In recent decades, evidence has mounted for the need to perform cardiovascular imaging in all females with TS irrespective of karyotype and phenotype. This is due to the high incidence of outcome-determining lesions that often remain subclinical and occur in patterns specific to TS. This review provides an overview of state-of-the-art cardiovascular imaging practice in TS, by means of a review of the most recent literature, in the context of a recent consensus statement that has highlighted the role of cardiovascular diseases in these females.


aortic and arterial disease; cardiac computer tomographic (ct) imaging; cardiac magnetic resonance (cmr) imaging; congenital heart disease; echocardiography

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