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Trends Microbiol. 2019 Feb;27(2):148-163. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2018.08.011. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

G-Quadruplexes: More Than Just a Kink in Microbial Genomes.

Author information

1
Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India.
2
Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India. Electronic address: vperumal@bioschool.iitd.ac.in.

Abstract

G-quadruplexes (G4s) are noncanonical nucleic acid secondary structures formed by guanine-rich DNA and RNA sequences. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the biological roles of G4s in microbial genomes with emphasis on recent discoveries. G4s are enriched and conserved in the regulatory regions of microbes, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Importantly, G4s in hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) genomes modulate genes crucial for virus replication. Recent studies on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) shed light on the role of G4s within the microbial transcripts as cis-acting regulatory signals that modulate translation and facilitate immune evasion. Furthermore, G4s in microbial genomes have been linked to radioresistance, antigenic variation, recombination, and latency. G4s in microbial genomes represent novel therapeutic targets for antimicrobial therapy.

KEYWORDS:

G-quadruplexes; G4s; bacteria; biological functions; microbes; viruses

PMID:
30224157
DOI:
10.1016/j.tim.2018.08.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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