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Vet Res. 2018 Sep 17;49(1):92. doi: 10.1186/s13567-018-0584-0.

Porcine sapovirus Cowden strain enters LLC-PK cells via clathrin- and cholesterol-dependent endocytosis with the requirement of dynamin II.

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Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.
Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.
Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.
Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.


Caliciviruses in the genus Sapovirus are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and animals. However, the mechanism of their entry into cells is not well characterized. Here, we determined the entry mechanism of porcine sapovirus (PSaV) strain Cowden into permissive LLC-PK cells. The inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis using chlorpromazine, siRNAs, and a dominant negative (DN) mutant blocked entry and infection of PSaV Cowden strain, confirming a role for clathrin-mediated internalization. Entry and infection were also inhibited by the cholesterol-sequestering drug methyl-β-cyclodextrin and was restored by the addition of soluble cholesterol, indicating that cholesterol also contributes to entry and infection of this strain. Furthermore, the inhibition of dynamin GTPase activity by dynasore, siRNA depletion of dynamin II, or overexpression of a DN mutant of dynamin II reduced the entry and infection, suggesting that dynamin mediates the fission and detachment of clathrin- and cholesterol-pits for entry of this strain. In contrast, the inhibition of caveolae-mediated endocytosis using nystatin, siRNAs, or a DN mutant had no inhibitory effect on entry and infection of this strain. It was further determined that cell entry of PSaV Cowden strain required actin rearrangements for vesicle internalization, endosomal trafficking from early to late endosomes through microtubules, and late endosomal acidification for uncoating. We conclude that PSaV strain Cowden is internalized into LLC-PK cells by clathrin- and cholesterol-mediated endocytosis that requires dynamin II and actin rearrangement, and that the uncoating occurs in the acidified late endosomes after trafficking from the early endosomes through microtubules.

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