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Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Sep 15;19(9). pii: E2779. doi: 10.3390/ijms19092779.

The Use of Liquids Ionic Fluids as Pharmaceutically Active Substances Helpful in Combating Nosocomial Infections Induced by Klebsiella Pneumoniae New Delhi Strain, Acinetobacter Baumannii and Enterococcus Species.

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Department of Periodontology and Oral Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw, 18 Miodowa St., 00-246 Warsaw, Poland.
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-531, Cracow, Poland.
Department of Microbiology, Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, 36 Rakowiecka St., 02-532 Warsaw, Poland.
Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, Institute of Microbiology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1 St., 02-096 Warsaw, Poland.
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery and Transplantology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University, JP II Hospital, 80 Prądnicka St., 31-202 Krakow, Poland.
Department of Animal Nutrition, The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, 05-110 Jabłonna, Poland.


This review deals with various microbiological activities of ionic liquids, which constitute the first anti-infective defense against multi-drug-resistant bacteria-with a particular emphasis placed on medicine and pharmacology. The quoted data on the biological activity of ionic liquids including their antimicrobial properties (depending on the type of a cation or an anion) and are discussed in view of possible applications in nosocomial infections. Dedicated attention is given to finding infections with the Klebsiella pneumoniae New Delhi strain, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterococcus species, which are responsible for the induction of antibiotic resistance in intensive care units. Diagnosis and treatment using current antibiotics is a significant problem in hospital care, and the relevant burden on the health systems of the European Union member states induces the search for new, effective methods of treatment. Ionic liquids, due to their antibacterial effect, can be considered topical and general medications and may provide the basis for treatment to eliminate the antibiotic resistance phenomenon in the future. At present, the number of infections with resistant pathogens in hospitals and outpatient clinics in the European Union is growing. In 2015⁻2017, a significant incidence of respiratory and bloodstream infections with bacteria resistant to antibiotics from the 3rd generation group of cephalosporins, glycopeptides, and carbapenems were observed. The paper presents examples of synthesized bifunctional salts with at least one pharmaceutically active ion in obtaining a controlled release, controlled delivery, and biological impact on the pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The ionic liquids obtained in the presented way may find applications in the treatment of wounds and infections.


Ionic liquids; antimicrobial effect; drug resistance

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