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Materials (Basel). 2018 Sep 14;11(9). pii: E1728. doi: 10.3390/ma11091728.

Enamel Anti-Demineralization Effect of Orthodontic Adhesive Containing Bioactive Glass and Graphene Oxide: An In-Vitro Study.

Author information

1
Department of Orthodontics, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University Dental Hospital, Yangsan 50612, Korea. seungminlee@pusan.ac.kr.
2
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea. seweet07@pusan.ac.kr.
3
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea. syy3@pusan.ac.kr.
4
Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Korea. biowool@pusan.ac.kr.
5
Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Korea. parkbs@pusan.ac.kr.
6
Department of Orthodontics, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University Dental Hospital, Yangsan 50612, Korea. wsson@pusan.ac.kr.
7
Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA. Ching-Chang_Ko@unc.edu.
8
Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Korea. songae76@gmail.com.
9
Department of Orthodontics, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University Dental Hospital, Yangsan 50612, Korea. kimyongil@pusan.ac.kr.
10
Institute of Translational Dental Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea. kimyongil@pusan.ac.kr.

Abstract

White spot lesions (WSLs), a side effect of orthodontic treatment, can result in reversible and unaesthetic results. Graphene oxide (GO) with a bioactive glass (BAG) mixture (BAG@GO) was added to Low-Viscosity Transbond XT (LV) in a ratio of 1, 3, and 5%. The composite's characterization and its physical and biological properties were verified with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD); its microhardness, shear bond strength (SBS), cell viability, and adhesive remnant index (ARI) were also assessed. Efficiency in reducing WSL was evaluated using antibacterial activity of S. mutans. Anti-demineralization was analyzed using a cycle of the acid-base solution. Adhesives with 3 wt.% or 5 wt.% of BAG@GO showed significant increase in microhardness compared with LV. The sample and LV groups showed no significant differences in SBS or ARI. The cell viability test confirmed that none of the sample groups showed higher toxicity compared to the LV group. Antibacterial activity was higher in the 48-h group than in the 24 h group; the 48 h test showed that BAG@GO had a high antibacterial effect, which was more pronounced in 5 wt.% of BAG@GO. Anti-demineralization effect was higher in the BAG@GO-group than in the LV-group; the higher the BAG@GO concentration, the higher the anti-demineralization effect.

KEYWORDS:

anti-demineralization; antibacterial effect; bioactive glass; graphene oxide; white spot lesion

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