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J Affect Disord. 2019 Jan 15;243:48-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.09.002. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Dysfunctional attitudes or extreme response style as predictors of depressive relapse and recurrence after mobile cognitive therapy for recurrent depression.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 1, Utrecht 3584 CS, The Netherlands; Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
2
Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 1, Utrecht 3584 CS, The Netherlands.
3
Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Zucker Hillside Hospital, 75-59 263rd Street, Glen Oaks, NY 110042, USA.
4
University of Pennsylvania, Department of Psychology, Stephen A. Levin Building, 425 S. University Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018, United States.
5
Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 2-1, Groningen 9712 TS, The Netherlands. Electronic address: c.l.bockting@amc.uva.nl.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

According to previous research, dysfunctional attitudes and/or scoring extreme on the end-point anchors of questionnaires of dysfunctional thinking predict depressive relapse/recurrence. Evidence that these two methods represent a risk for depressive relapse/recurrence is however mixed, due to differential or poorly defined concepts. The current study aimed to test the two methods.

METHODS:

Remitted recurrently depressed patients with low residual depressive symptoms (N = 264) were recruited as part of a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of mobile Cognitive Therapy for recurrent depression versus treatment as usual. In the current secondary analysis, Cox regression models were conducted to test dysfunctional attitudes and extreme responding variables (assessed on the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale [DAS]) as predictors of depressive relapse/recurrence within two years after randomization.

RESULTS:

Data from 255 participants were analyzed. Results showed that DAS total scores at baseline significantly predicted depressive relapse/recurrence (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.01, p = .042). An index that reflects endorsement of habitual relative to functional responses was a significant predictor of depressive relapse/recurrence (HR = 2.11, p = .029).

LIMITATIONS:

The current study employed a single measure to identify extreme responses and dysfunctional attitudes. Secondly, various statistical analyses were performed without correcting for multiple testing, which in turn increased the likelihood to finding significant results.

CONCLUSIONS:

Current study confirmed both methods: People who scored higher on the DAS or had relatively more habitual than functional responses on the extreme positive ends of the DAS had a decreased time to depressive relapse/recurrence.

KEYWORDS:

Cognition; Cognitive behavior therapy; Depression; Extreme responding; Relapse; Web-based

PMID:
30223139
DOI:
10.1016/j.jad.2018.09.002

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