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Eur J Nutr. 2018 Sep 15. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1819-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Food insecurity and adult weight abnormality risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
2
Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran, Iran.
3
Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), P.O. Box: 14155-6117, Tehran, Iran.
4
Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.
5
Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.
6
Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Students Research Committee, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
7
Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), P.O. Box: 14155-6117, Tehran, Iran. mirzaei_kh@tums.ac.ir.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Research into the relationship between food insecurity and weight abnormality has yielded varied and contradictory results. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to examine the association between food insecurity and weight abnormality in adults.

METHODS:

Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed and Scopus databases, up to February 2018. Data were available from 31 studies. These studies were conducted in 14 different countries. The odds ratio of 115,993 individuals in these studies was pooled for the meta-analysis.

RESULTS:

The present meta-analysis showed that adults in food-insecure households are more at risk of obesity (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.23). Subgroup analysis by gender also revealed that women had a higher risk of obesity compared to men in food-insecure households (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.05-1.46). Furthermore, subgroup analysis by food insecurity level implied that a severe level of household food insecurity may be associated with a higher risk of underweight (49%) than overweight (37%) or obesity (29%) among adults. In addition, subgroup analysis revealed that with lower levels of national economic development, the risk of weight abnormality shifted from obesity to underweight.

CONCLUSION:

It seems that adults in food-insecure households, especially women, are at higher risk of obesity. The weight abnormality risk may increase with the intensification of the level of food insecurity. Also, the level of economic development is an important factor in the effects of food insecurity on weight status. However, due to the high heterogeneity among studies, the results should be interpreted with caution.

KEYWORDS:

Adult weight status; Food insecurity; Obesity; Overweight; Underweight

PMID:
30219965
DOI:
10.1007/s00394-018-1819-6

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