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FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2019 Jan 1;43(1):1-18. doi: 10.1093/femsre/fuy035.

Talk to your gut: the oral-gut microbiome axis and its immunomodulatory role in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis.

Author information

1
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Medical Microbiology, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen, the Netherlands.
2
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Dentistry and Oral Hygiene, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, the Netherlands.
3
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen, the Netherlands.

Abstract

Microbial communities inhabiting the human body, collectively called the microbiome, are critical modulators of immunity. This notion is underpinned by associations between changes in the microbiome and particular autoimmune disorders. Specifically, in rheumatoid arthritis, one of the most frequently occurring autoimmune disorders worldwide, changes in the oral and gut microbiomes have been implicated in the loss of tolerance against self-antigens and in increased inflammatory events promoting the damage of joints. In the present review, we highlight recently gained insights in the roles of microbes in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, we address important immunomodulatory processes, including biofilm formation and neutrophil function, which have been implicated in host-microbe interactions relevant for rheumatoid arthritis. Lastly, we present recent advances in the development and evaluation of emerging microbiome-based therapeutic approaches. Altogether, we conclude that the key to uncovering the etiopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis will lie in the immunomodulatory functions of the oral and gut microbiomes.

PMID:
30219863
DOI:
10.1093/femsre/fuy035
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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