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Parasit Vectors. 2018 Sep 15;11(1):511. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-3073-4.

Monitoring of malaria vectors at the China-Myanmar border while approaching malaria elimination.

Zhang SS1,2,3,4,5,6,7, Zhou SS8,9,10,11, Zhou ZB1,2,3,4, Chen TM1,2,3,4, Wang XZ12, Shi WQ1,2,3,4, Jiang WK1,2,3,4, Li JL13, Zhou XN1,2,3,4, Frutos R5,6, Manguin S7, Afelt A14.

Author information

1
National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, 200025, China.
2
Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, Shanghai, 200025, China.
3
National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200025, China.
4
WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases, Shanghai, 200025, China.
5
IES, Université Montpellier, CNRS, 34059, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
6
Cirad, UMR 17, Intertryp, Campus international de Baillarguet, 34398, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
7
HydroSciences Montpellier (HSM), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), CNRS, Université Montpellier, 34093, Montpellier, France.
8
National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, 200025, China. shuisenzhou@126.com.
9
Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, Shanghai, 200025, China. shuisenzhou@126.com.
10
National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200025, China. shuisenzhou@126.com.
11
WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases, Shanghai, 200025, China. shuisenzhou@126.com.
12
Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu'er Yunnan, 665000, China.
13
Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi, 214064, Jiangsu Province, China.
14
Interdisciplinary Center for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, Tyniecka 15/17, 02-630, Warsaw, Poland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Tengchong County was one of the counties located at the China-Myanmar border with high malaria incidence in the previous decades. As the pilot county for malaria elimination at the border area, Tengchong County is aiming to be the first county to achieve malaria elimination goal. A cross-sectional entomological survey was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of elimination approach and assess the receptivity of malaria reintroduction.

METHODS:

Light traps associated with live baits were used to investigate the abundance of adult mosquitoes in nine villages in Tengchong County. Light traps were set to collect adult mosquitoes in both human houses and cowsheds from dusk till dawn in each site.

RESULTS:

A total of 4948 adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from May to December in two villages. Of the mosquitoes were captured, 24.2% were in human houses and 75.8% in cowsheds. The peak of abundance occurred in July for An. sinensis and in September-October for An. minimus (s.l.) Ten Anopheles species were collected, the most prevalent being An. sinensis (50.3%), An. peditaeniatus (31.6%) and An. minimus (s.l.) (15.8%), contributing to 97.6% of the sample. Potential breeding sites were also investigated and a total of 407 larvae were collected, with An. sinensis (50.1%) and An. minimus (s.l.) (46.2%) as predominant species. Ponds and rice fields were the two preferred breeding sites for Anopheles mosquitoes; however, the difference between the number of adults and larvae captured suggest other breeding sites might exist. Both An. sinensis and An. minimus (s.l.) were found zoophilic with human blood index as 0.21 and 0.26, respectively. No Plasmodium positive Anopheles specimens were found by PCR among 4,000 trapped mosquitoes.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although no indigenous malaria cases have been reported in Tengchong County since 2013, there is still a risk from the presence of vectors in the context of human population movements from neighboring malaria endemic areas. The presence of An. sinensis, associated to rice fields, is particularly worrying. Sustained entomological surveillance is strongly suggested even after malaria elimination certification.

KEYWORDS:

China-Myanmar border; Ecological traits; Malaria elimination; Malaria vector; Receptivity

PMID:
30219093
PMCID:
PMC6139178
DOI:
10.1186/s13071-018-3073-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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