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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2018 Oct;144:252-259. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2018.09.009. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Epidemiology of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in Azerbaijan: Incidence, clinical features, biochemistry, and HLA-DRB1 status.

Author information

1
Endocrine Centre, Binagadi, Baku City, Azerbaijan; 6th Children's Hospital, Baku City, Azerbaijan; Azerbaijan Medical University, Baku City, Azerbaijan.
2
International Diabetes Federation Life for a Child Program, Glebe, NSW 2037, Australia; Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia.
3
Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, Diabetes Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA; Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Diabetes Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.
4
6th Children's Hospital, Baku City, Azerbaijan.
5
Azerbaijan Medical University, Baku City, Azerbaijan.
6
Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, Diabetes Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.
7
Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609, USA.
8
International Diabetes Federation Life for a Child Program, Glebe, NSW 2037, Australia; Diabetes NSW, Glebe 2037, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: grahamo@diabetesnsw.com.au.

Abstract

AIMS:

Determine the incidence and typology of diabetes in children in Azerbaijan.

METHODS:

Clinical features, C-peptide, autoantibodies (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and islet antigen 2 (IA-2)), and HLA-DRB1 status were studied in 106 subjects <18 years of age who were recently diagnosed. 104 cases were consecutive. Incidence was determined for Baku and Absheron regions, where ascertainment is estimated to be essentially 100%.

RESULTS:

104 of the 106 (98%) were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, one with type 2 diabetes and one with atypical diabetes. Type 1 diabetes incidence in Baku City and Absheron was 7.05 per 100,000 population <15 years per year. Peak age of onset was 10 years. There was a slight male preponderance (male:female 1.17:1), and no temporal association with seasons. Almost all type 1 diabetes subjects presented with classic symptoms including a high incidence (58%) of diabetic ketoacidosis. 86% presented with low C-peptide values (<0.13 nmol/L, <0.40 ng/mL) and 74% were positive for at least one type 1 diabetes-related autoantibody.

CONCLUSIONS:

Azerbaijan has a moderate type 1 diabetes incidence and clinical, biochemical and genetic features similar to that in European populations.

KEYWORDS:

Autoimmunity; Azerbaijan; Childhood diabetes; HLA; Incidence

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