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Aging Cell. 2018 Dec;17(6):e12831. doi: 10.1111/acel.12831. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

The nuclear receptor RXRA controls cellular senescence by regulating calcium signaling.

Author information

1
Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, Inserm U1052, CNRS UMR 5286, Centre Léon Bérard, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France.
2
Epigenetics and Cell Fate, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS UMR 7216, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France.

Abstract

Calcium signaling is emerging as a key pathway controlling cellular senescence, a stable cell proliferation arrest playing a fundamental role in pathophysiological conditions, such as embryonic development, wound healing, cancer, and aging. However, how calcium signaling is regulated is still only partially understood. The inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 (ITPR2), an endoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel, was recently shown to critically contribute to the implementation of senescence, but how ITPR2 expression is controlled is unclear. To gain insights into the regulation of ITPR2 expression, we performed an siRNA screen targeting 160 transcription factors and epigenetic regulators. Interestingly, we discovered that the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA), which belongs to the nuclear receptor family, represses ITPR2 expression and regulates calcium signaling though ITPR2 and the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Knockdown of RXRA induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage via the ITPR2-MCU calcium signaling axis and consequently triggers cellular senescence by activating p53, whereas RXRA overexpression decreases DNA damage accumulation and then delays replicative senescence. Altogether, our work sheds light on a novel mechanism controlling calcium signaling and cellular senescence and provides new insights into the role of nuclear receptors.

KEYWORDS:

ITPR2; calcium; nuclear receptor; p53; senescence

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