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Sci Rep. 2018 Sep 13;8(1):13742. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32110-0.

Microwave treatment of the cornea leads to localised disruption of the extracellular matrix.

Author information

1
Structural Biophysics Group, School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Maindy Road, Cardiff, CF24 4HQ, Wales, United Kingdom.
2
Cardiff Institute of Tissue Engineering and Repair, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Redwood Building, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff, CF10 3NB, United Kingdom.
3
Baptist Eye Hospital, 12 Kamiikeda-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8287, Japan.
4
Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Hirokoji Kawaramachi, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, 602-0841, Japan.
5
Department of Frontier Medical Science and Technology for Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Hirokoji Kawaramachi, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, 602-0841, Japan.
6
Structural Biophysics Group, School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Maindy Road, Cardiff, CF24 4HQ, Wales, United Kingdom. QuantockAJ@cf.ac.uk.
7
Cardiff Institute of Tissue Engineering and Repair, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Redwood Building, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff, CF10 3NB, United Kingdom. QuantockAJ@cf.ac.uk.

Abstract

Microwave keratoplasty is a thermo-refractive surgical procedure that can correct myopia (short-sightedness) and pathologic corneal steepening by using microwave energy to cause localised shrinkage around an annulus of the cornea leading to its flattening and vision correction. The effects on the corneal extracellular matrix, however, have not yet been evaluated, thus the current study to assess post-procedure ultrastructural changes in an in-vivo rabbit model. To achieve this a series of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments were carried out across whole transects of treated and untreated rabbit corneas at 0.25 mm intervals, which indicated no significant change in collagen intra-fibrillar parameters (i.e. collagen fibril diameter or axial D-period), whereas inter-fibrillar measures (i.e. fibril spacing and the degree of spatial order) were markedly altered in microwave-treated regions of the cornea. These structural matrix alterations in microwave-treated corneas have predicted implications for corneal biomechanical strength and tissue transparency, and, we contend, potentially render microwave-treated corneas resistant to surgical stabilization using corneal cross-linking procedures currently employed to combat refractive error caused by corneal steepening.

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