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Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Sep;97(37):e12311. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000012311.

11C-acetate and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography dual imaging for the prediction of response and prognosis after transarterial chemoembolization.

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Department of Nuclear Medicine.
Molecular Imaging Branch.
Center for Liver Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, South Korea.


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical significance of dual radiotracer studies, C-acetate and F-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT), for the prediction of response and recurrence after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).This study retrospectively included a total 42 hepatoceullar carcinoma (HCC) patients (median age, 59; range, 34-85 years old) who underwent C-acetate and F-FDG PET/CT concurrently. Tumor uptake normalized by liver uptake (TNR; maximum tumor SUV to mean normal liver SUV ratio) was obtained first. Then, FAratio, which is the ratio of F-FDG TNR (TNR_FDG) to C-acetate TNR, was obtained and correlated with response after TACE and recurrence-free survival (RFS), using a Cox multivariate proportional-hazard model.Among clinical factors, including the Hepatoma Arterial Embolization Prognostic score and positron emission tomography (PET) parameters, multiple regression analysis revealed FAratio and tumor size to be the only significant factors. As a PET parameter, FAratio exhibited the largest area under the curve in the prediction of response after TACE. In the Cox multivariate proportional-hazard model, TNR_FDG was the only significant predictive factor for RFS. In subgroup analysis, TNR_FDG was the only significant predictive factor for recurrence in intermediate stage patients. However, FAratio was the only significant predictive factor for recurrence in advanced stage patients.Dual radiotracer use of C-acetate and F-FDG PET/CT contributed to the prediction of response and recurrence after TACE. Used in addition to F-FDG, C-acetate PET/CT could give additional information in advanced stage patients. Based on the characteristics of tumor metabolism assessed by dual radiotracer PET/CT, treatment plans could be more personalized and optimized.

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