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Stem Cells Int. 2018 Aug 19;2018:8031718. doi: 10.1155/2018/8031718. eCollection 2018.

Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering.

Author information

1
Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3G9.
2
Translational Biology and Engineering Program, Ted Rogers Centre for Heart Research, 661 University Ave, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1M1.
3
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6.
4
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3G8.

Abstract

As a result of over five decades of investigation, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a versatile and frequently utilized cell source in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In this review, we summarize the history of MSC research from the initial discovery of their multipotency to the more recent recognition of their perivascular identity in vivo and their extraordinary capacity for immunomodulation and angiogenic signaling. As well, we discuss long-standing questions regarding their developmental origins and their capacity for differentiation toward a range of cell lineages. We also highlight important considerations and potential risks involved with their isolation, ex vivo expansion, and clinical use. Overall, this review aims to serve as an overview of the breadth of research that has demonstrated the utility of MSCs in a wide range of clinical contexts and continues to unravel the mechanisms by which these cells exert their therapeutic effects.

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