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Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2018 Sep 12;82(4). pii: e00033-18. doi: 10.1128/MMBR.00033-18. Print 2018 Dec.

Interplay between Peptidoglycan Biology and Virulence in Gram-Negative Pathogens.

Author information

1
Servicio de Microbiología and Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Son Espases, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Baleares (IdISBa), Palma, Spain carlos.juan@ssib.es.
2
Servicio de Microbiología and Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Son Espases, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Baleares (IdISBa), Palma, Spain.
#
Contributed equally

Abstract

The clinical and epidemiological threat of the growing antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative pathogens, particularly for β-lactams, the most frequently used and relevant antibiotics, urges research to find new therapeutic weapons to combat the infections caused by these microorganisms. An essential previous step in the development of these therapeutic solutions is to identify their potential targets in the biology of the pathogen. This is precisely what we sought to do in this review specifically regarding the barely exploited field analyzing the interplay among the biology of the peptidoglycan and related processes, such as β-lactamase regulation and virulence. Hence, here we gather, analyze, and integrate the knowledge derived from published works that provide information on the topic, starting with those dealing with the historically neglected essential role of the Gram-negative peptidoglycan in virulence, including structural, biogenesis, remodeling, and recycling aspects, in addition to proinflammatory and other interactions with the host. We also review the complex link between intrinsic β-lactamase production and peptidoglycan metabolism, as well as the biological costs potentially associated with the expression of horizontally acquired β-lactamases. Finally, we analyze the existing evidence from multiple perspectives to provide useful clues for identifying targets enabling the future development of therapeutic options attacking the peptidoglycan-virulence interconnection as a key weak point of the Gram-negative pathogens to be used, if not to kill the bacteria, to mitigate their capacity to produce severe infections.

KEYWORDS:

NOD receptors; bacterial secretion system; flagellum; inflammation; lysozyme; murein; pathogenesis; penicillin binding proteins; peptidoglycan; peptidoglycan recognition proteins; recycling; β-lactamase regulation

PMID:
30209071
PMCID:
PMC6298613
[Available on 2019-09-12]
DOI:
10.1128/MMBR.00033-18
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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