Send to

Choose Destination
Sports (Basel). 2018 Sep 11;6(3). pii: E93. doi: 10.3390/sports6030093.

Association between Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status and Heart Rate Variability among Divison-1 Sprint-Swimmers.

Author information

Department of Health Sciences and Kinesiology, Biodynamics and Human Performance Center, Georgia Southern University, 11935 Abercorn St., Savannah, GA 31419, USA.
Department of Kinesiology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA.
Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy.
The College of Healthcare Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia.


Heart rate variability (HRV) is a physiological marker of training adaptation among athletes. However, HRV interpretation is challenging when assessed in isolation due to its sensitivity to various training and non-training-related factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between athlete-self report measures of recovery (ASRM) and HRV throughout a preparatory training period. Ultra-short natural logarithm of the root mean square of successive differences (LnRMSSD) and subjective ratings of sleep quality, fatigue, muscle soreness, stress and mood were acquired daily for 4 weeks among Division-1 sprint-swimmers (n = 17 males). ASRM were converted to z-scores and classified as average (z-score -0.5⁻0.5), better than average (z-score > 0.5) or worse than average (z-score < -0.5). Linear mixed models were used to evaluate differences in LnRMSSD based on ASRM classifications. LnRMSSD was higher (p < 0.05) when perceived sleep quality, fatigue, stress and mood were better than average versus worse than average. Within-subject correlations revealed that 15 of 17 subjects demonstrated at least one relationship (p < 0.05) between LnRMSSD and ASRM variables. Changes in HRV may be the result of non-training related factors and thus practitioners are encouraged to include subjective measures to facilitate targeted interventions to support training adaptations.


autonomic; cardiovascular; parasympathetic; sports science; wellness

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center