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Expert Rev Proteomics. 2018 Sep;15(9):749-756. doi: 10.1080/14789450.2018.1521277. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Liver cancer-associated changes to the proteome: what deserves clinical focus?

Author information

1
a CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, ProteoRed-ISCIII, Bizkaia Science and Technology Park , Derio , Spain.
2
b National Institute for the Study of Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases (CIBERehd), Carlos III National Institute of Health , Madrid , Spain.
3
c Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases , Cedars-Sinai Medical Center , LA , CA , USA.
4
d Université Grenoble-Alpes, CEA, BIG, Biologie à Grande Echelle, Inserm , Grenoble , France.
5
e Functional Proteomics Laboratory , Centro Nacional de Biotecnología-CSIC, Proteored-ISCIII, CIBERehd , Madrid , Spain.

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is recognized as the fifth most common neoplasm and currently represents the second leading form of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite great progress has been done in the understanding of its pathogenesis, HCC represents a heavy societal and economic burden as most patients are still diagnosed at advanced stages and the 5-year survival rate remain below 20%. Early detection and revolutionary therapies that rely on the discovery of new molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets are therefore urgently needed to develop precision medicine strategies for a more efficient management of patients. Areas covered: This review intends to comprehensively analyse the proteomics-based research conducted in the last few years to address some of the principal still open riddles in HCC biology, based on the identification of molecular drivers of tumor progression and metastasis. Expert commentary: The technical advances in mass spectrometry experienced in the last decade have significantly improved the analytical capacity of proteome wide studies. Large-scale protein and protein variant (post-translational modifications) identification and quantification have allowed detailed dissections of molecular mechanisms underlying HCC progression and are already paving the way for the identification of clinically relevant proteins and the development of their use on patient care.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarkers; hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); liver; mass spectrometry; one carbon metabolism; proteomics

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