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J Econ Entomol. 2018 Dec 14;111(6):2644-2651. doi: 10.1093/jee/toy218.

Efficacy and Phytotoxicity of Phosphine as Fumigants for Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Asparagus.

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Department of Plant Medicine, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea.
Plant Quarantine Technology Center, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, Republic of Korea.
Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Junju-daero, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea.


The insecticidal activity of phosphine (PH3) and ethyl formate (EF) toward Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and their phytotoxicity to asparagus were evaluated. Both the PH3 and EF fumigants showed higher lethal concentration and time (LCT) values at lower temperatures. The LCT99 values of PH3 and EF at 5°C in a 12 liters desiccator for 4 h showed the following ranking: eggs (64.69 mg·h/liter for PH3 and EF indicating phytotoxicity to asparagus), nymphs (5.54 and 17.48 mg·h/liter, respectively), and adults (3.83 and 14.67 mg·h/liter, respectively). The adsorption of PH3 was approximately 11% at 2°C and 13% at 5°C, whereas the adsorption of EF increased sharply to 88% at 2°C and 97% at 5°C. The hatching rate of F. occidentalis eggs was approximately 95% at all locations (top, middle, and bottom) in the presence of 4 mg/liter PH3 at 5°C in a 0.65-m3 fumigation chamber for 24 h. However, extension of the treatment to 48 h resulted in 100% inhibition of egg hatching. The atmospheric level of PH3 decreased below the threshold limit value after 80 min, and phytotoxicity was not observed. The results revealed that EF is highly absorbed by asparagus and is not suitable as a fumigant, but PH3 is a suitable alternative to the fumigant methyl bromide for the control of western flower thrips in asparagus.


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