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Nutr Rev. 2019 Jan 1;77(1):32-45. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuy044.

Carotenoids, vitamin A, and their association with the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

1
National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
2
Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
3
Nemours Children's Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.
4
Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
5
Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA.

Abstract

Context:

Modifiable factors that reduce the burden of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), particularly plant-derived biomarkers, have been a recent focus of rising interest.

Objective:

This systematic review and meta-analysis, which follows PRISMA guidelines, evaluates evidence from a period of 20 years that links vitamin A and carotenoids with the occurrence of MetS and following the PRISMA guidelines.

Data Sources:

PubMed and Cochrane databases (January 1997 through March 2017) were systematically assessed for studies, including case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies, that evaluated the associations of MetS with carotenoids and retinyl esters and retinol (vitamin A).

Data Extraction:

Key measures of associations were harmonized into odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of MetS per 1 standard deviation (SD) of exposure using forest plots and random effects models that pooled data points from 11 cross-sectional studies. Begg's funnel and harvest plots were constructed.

Results:

An inverse association between total carotenoids and MetS was found [ORpooled, 0.66; 95%CI, 0.56-0.78; 1 SD ∼ 0.82 µmol/L; n = 5 studies]. This association was the strongest for β-carotene, followed by α-carotene and β-crypotoxanthin. No association was detected between retinol and MetS (ORpooled, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.88-1.13; 1 SD ∼ 2.14 µmol/L; n = 6 studies). Publication bias was absent, and harvest plots indicated consistency upon replication for β-carotene and total carotenoid exposures.

Conclusions:

This review and meta-analysis suggests that, unlike retinol, total and individual carotenoids were inversely related to MetS.

PMID:
30202882
PMCID:
PMC6277204
[Available on 2020-01-01]
DOI:
10.1093/nutrit/nuy044

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