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Quintessence Int. 2018;49(9):761-768. doi: 10.3290/j.qi.a41009.

Assessment of gingival zenith position and its level relative to age and gender in maxillary anterior teeth.



The gingival tissues surrounding the maxillary anterior teeth play a pivotal role in fostering a beautiful smile. The gingival zenith position (GZP) and its spatial orientation in the mesiodistal and apicocoronal direction can provide a valuable reference point. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the GZP and gingival zenith line (GZL) in maxillary anterior teeth in different age groups and genders.


The study population comprised 124 periodontally healthy patients equally divided into 21 to 40 years (Group I) and 41 to 60 years (Group II) age groups and gender distribution. The parameters of vertically bisected midline (VBM), GZP, and GZL were evaluated for all the teeth.


The GZP was distally placed in 54.68% and 78.12% of the central incisors for males and females in Group I, while in Group II it was 65.62% and 75.00% respectively. The majority of lateral incisors and canines had coincidence of the GZP and VBM. The GZL was found to be at an apical position with reference to the GZP of lateral incisors.


A distal deviation of GZP was observed for central incisors, while the GZP coincided with the VBM for lateral incisors and canines. The GZL was apically placed in relation to the GZP of lateral incisors. These elements can be taken up as reference points in periodontal and restorative procedures.


esthetics; gingival zenith line; gingival zenith position; periodontally healthy patients; periodontology


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